Concrete is a material used in building construction, consisting of a hard, chemically inert substance, known as an aggregate (usually made from different types of sand and gravel), that is bonded together by cement and water..
The Assyrians and Babylonians used clay as the bonding substance or cement. The Egyptians used lime and gypsum cement. In 1756, British engineer John Smeaton made the first modern concrete by adding pebbles as a coarse aggregate and mixing powdered brick into the cement. In 1824, English inventor, Joseph Aspdin invented Portland cement, which has remained the dominant cement used in concrete production. Joseph Aspdin created the first true artificial cement by burning ground limestone and clay together. The chemical properties of the material and Joseph Aspdin created stronger cement than what using plain crushed limestone would produce.